The term diabetes mellitus comes from the Greek and means something like “honey-sweet flow”, an allusion to the main symptom of diabetes: the sugar contained in the urine. Diabetes mellitus is a disease term for various forms of glucose metabolic disorder. The cause of diabetes can either be insulin deficiency or insulin resistance, ie sensitivity, or both.
The pancreas produces the hormone insulin in its cells of the islets of Langerhans. This mediates to the cells the transport of glucose (glucose) into the cell interior, from where it is used for energy production (glycolysis). Insulin causes the absorption of glucose into the body cells for energy, as well as the storage in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscle cells. In diabetes, insulin production is disrupted and glucose cannot be absorbed into the cells. At the same time, there is no inhibition of the formation of new sugars in the liver. The glucose, therefore, remains in the blood, causing a rise in blood sugar.
If the blood sugar level is permanently increased, this damages the blood vessels, which in turn can lead to secondary diseases. These include myocardial infarction, stroke, circulatory disorders of the legs and feet, changes in the retina, disorders of kidney function and erectile dysfunction. Damaged nerves can cause numbness and emotional disorders. To come to such suffering beforehand, a lifelong and careful blood sugar adjustment is inevitable. Different forms of diabetes are distinguished.
Shapes and divisions
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also referred to as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent (IDDM) because it manifests itself in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, and those affected need to take insulin throughout their lives.
A cause is a high probability an autoimmune antibody process in which the body’s immune system? Cells of the pancreas destroyed.
Diabetes mellitus type 2
About 90 percent of all diabetics suffer from type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is also referred to as non-insulin dependent (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes because it used to be primarily for older people. Meanwhile, those affected are getting younger and younger. This type belongs to the so-called metabolic syndrome. In his case, the body’s own insulin production is maintained, initially even mostly increased.
Due to lack of exercise, there is a slowing of glucose breakdown. Insulin secretion is disrupted, often with the addition of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates. The insulin concentration in the blood increases thereby, at the same time the number of insulin receptors and thus the insulin sensitivity of the target cells decreases. This is called insulin resistance.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 occurs suddenly. There is an increased excretion of urine, although the affected person usually drinks more to compensate for the loss of fluid again. The increasing metabolic disorder is associated with nausea and weakness to dysregulation. Often, diabetes mellitus type 1 patients are quite slim despite abundant food intake.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
The Type 2 develops slowly and is often recognized late. General symptoms such as weakness and decreased performance are associated with fungal infections of the skin, itching, blurred vision and recurrent urinary tract infections (e.g., cystitis). In addition, those affected usually have metabolic disorders, high blood pressure (hypertension) and overweight (obesity). Compared to type 1 diabetes, the characteristic symptoms of type 2 diabetes, such as thirst or urinary tract dysfunction, such as increased urine output (polyuria) occur later.
For male patients of both types, there is an increased risk of having erectile dysfunction during the course of the disease, while female patients are at risk of menstruation (amenorrhea).
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